1. Kinetic theory of gases: (8)
Introduction – Deduction of Maxwell’s law of distribution of molecular speeds, Experimental verification Toothed Wheel Experiment, Transport Phenomena – Viscosity of gases – thermal conductivity – diffusion of gases.
2. Thermodynamics: (12)
Introduction – Reversible and irreversible processes – Carnot’s engine and its efficiency – Carnot’s theorem – Second law of thermodynamics, Kelvin’s and Claussius statements – Thermodynamic scale of temperature – Entropy, physical significance – Change in entropy in reversible and irreversible processes – Entropy and disorder – Entropy of universe – Temperature- Entropy (T-S) diagram – Change of entropy of a perfect gas-change of entropy when ice changes into steam.
3. Thermodynamic potentials and Maxwell’s equations: (10)
Thermodynamic potentials – Derivation of Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations – Clausius-Clayperon’s equation – Derivation for ratio of specific heats – Derivation for difference of two specific heats for perfect gas. Joule Kelvin effect – expression for Joule Kelvin coefficient for perfect and Vanderwaal’s gas.
4. Low temperature Physics: (10)
Introduction – Joule Kelvin effect – liquefaction of gas using porous plug experiment. Joule expansion – Distinction between adiabatic and Joule Thomson expansion – Expression for Joule Thomson cooling – Liquefaction of helium, Kapitza’s method – Adiabatic demagnetization – Production of low temperatures – Principle of refrigeration, vapour compression type. Working of refrigerator and Air conditioning machines. Effects of Chloro and Fluro Carbons on Ozone layer;
5. Quantum theory of radiation: (10)
Black body-Ferry’s black body – distribution of energy in the spectrum of Black body – Wein’s displacement law, Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jean’s law – Quantum theory of radiation - Planck’s law – deduction of Wein’s law, Rayleigh-Jeans law, from Planck’s law - Measurement of radiation – Types of pyrometers – Disappearing filament optical pyrometer – Angstrom pyroheliometer - determination of solar constant, estimation of temperature of sun.
6. Statistical Mechanics: (10)
Introduction to statistical mechanics, concept of ensembles, Phase space, Maxwell-Boltzmann’s distribution law, Molecular energies in an ideal gas, Bose- Einstein Distribution law, Fermi-Dirac Distribution law, comparison of three distribution laws, Black Body Radiation, Rayleigh-Jean’s formula, Planck’s radiation law, Weins Displacement, Stefan’s Boltzmann’s law from Plancks formula.
7. The Matrix methods in paraxial optics: (8)
Introduction, the matrix method, effect of translation, effect of refraction, imaging by a spherical refracting surface. Imaging by a co-axial optical system. Unit planes. Nodal planes. A system of two thin lenses.
8. Aberrations: (7)
Introduction – Monochromatic aberrations, spherical aberration, methods of minimizing spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and curvature of field, distortion. Chromatic aberration – the achromatic doublet – Removal of chromatic aberration of a separated doublet.
9. Interference: (15)
Principle of superposition – coherence – temporal coherence and spatial coherence – conditions for Interference of light
Interference by division of wave front: Fresnel’s biprism – determination of wave length of light. Determination of thickness of a transparent material using
Biprism – change of phase on reflection – Lloyd’s mirror experiment.
Interference by division of amplitude: Oblique incidence of a plane wave on a thin film due to reflected and transmitted light (Cosine law) – Colours of thin films – Non reflecting films – interference by a plane parallel film illuminated by a point source – Interference by a film with two non-parallel reflecting surfaces (Wedge shaped film) – Determination of diameter of wire-Newton’s rings in reflected light with and without contact between lens and glass plate, Newton’s rings in transmitted light (Haidinger Fringes) – Determination of wave length of monochromatic light – Michelson Interferometer – types of fringes – Determination of wavelength of monochromatic light, Difference in wavelength of sodium D1,D2 lines and thickness of a thin transparent plate.
10. Diffraction: (10)
Introduction – Distinction between Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction Fraunhoffer diffraction:- Diffraction due to single slit and circular aperture – Limit of resolution – Fraunhoffer diffraction due to double slit – Fraunhoffer diffraction pattern with N slits (diffraction grating) Resolving Power of grating – Determination of wave length of light in normal and oblique incidence methods using diffraction grating. Fresnel diffraction:- Fresnel’s half period zones – area of the half period zones –zone plate – Comparison of zone plate with convex lens – Phase reversal zone plate – diffraction at a straight edge – difference between interference and diffraction.
11. Polarization (10)
Polarized light : Methods of Polarization, Polarizatioin by reflection, refraction, Double refraction, selective absorption , scattering of light – Brewsters law – Malus law – Nicol prism polarizer and analyzer – Refraction of plane wave incident on negative and positive crystals (Huygen’s explanation) – Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate – Babinet’s compensator – Optical activity, analysis of light by Laurent’s half shade polarimeter.
12 Laser, Fiber Optics and Holography: (10)
Lasers: Introduction – Spontaneous emission – Stimulated emission – Population inversion . Laser principle – Einstein coefficients – Types of Lasers – He-Ne laser – Ruby laser – Applications of lasers. Fiber Optics : Introduction – Optical fibers – Types of optical fibers – Step and graded index fibers – Rays and modes in an optical fiber – Fiber material – Principles of fiber communication (qualitative treatment only) and advantages of fiber communication.
Holography: Basic Principle of Holography – Gabor hologram and its limitations, Holography applications.
NOTE: Problems should be solved at the end of every chapter of all units.
1. Optics by Ajoy Ghatak. The McGraw-Hill companies.
2. Optics by Subramaniyam and Brijlal. S. Chand & Co.
3. Fundamentals of Physics. Halliday/Resnick/Walker.C. Wiley India Edition 2007.
4. Optics and Spectroscopy. R. Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Siva Prasath. S. Chand & Co.
5. Second Year Physics – Telugu Academy.
6. Modern Physics by R. Murugeshan and Kiruthiga Siva Prasath (for statistical Mechanics) S. Chand & Co.
7. Thermodynamics by R.C. Srivastava, Subit K. Saha & Abhay K. Jain Eastern Economy Edition.
8. Heat and thermodynamics – Brijlala and Subrahamanyam (S.Chand)
1. Modern Physics by G. Aruldhas and P. Rajagopal, Eastern Economy Education.
2. Berkeley Physics Course. Volume-5. Statistical Physics by F. Reif. The McGraw- Hill Companies.
3. An Introduction to Thermal Physics by Daniel V. Schroeder.Pearson Education Low Price Edition.
4. Modern Engineering Physics by A.S. Vasudeva. S.Chand & Co. Publications.
5. Feyman’s Lectures on Physics Vol. 1,2,3 & 4. Narosa Publications.
6. Fundamentals of Optics by Jenkins A. Francis and White E. Harvey, McGraw Hil Inc.
1. Co-efficient of thermal conductivity of a bad conductor by Lee’s method.
2. Measurement of Stefan’s constant.
3. Specific heat of a liquid by applying Newton’s law of cooling correction.
4. Heating efficiency of electrical kettle with varying voltages.
5. Thickness of a wire-wedge method.
6. Determination of wavelength of light –Biprism.
7. Determination of Radius of curvature of a given convex lens- Newton’s rings.
8. Resolving power of grating.
9. Study of optical rotation-polarimeter.
10. Dispersive power of a prism
11. Determination of wavelength of light using diffraction grating minimum deviation method.
12. Wavelength of light using diffraction grating – normal incidence method.
13. Resolving power of a telescope.
14. Refractive index of a liquid and glass (Boys Method).
15. Pulfrich refractometer – determination of refractive index of liquid.
16. Wavelength of Laser light using diffraction grating.